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World War One


 

A History of The Nations and Empires Involved and a Study of the of the Events Culminating in The Great Conflict







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A History of The Nations and Empires Involved and a Study of the Events Culminating in The Great Conflict

by Logan Marshall

PREFACE

When the people of the United States heard the news of the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife in Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28, 1914, it was with a feeling of great regret that another sorrow had been added to the many already borne by the aged Emperor Francis Joseph. That those fatal shots would echo around the world and, flashing out suddenly like a bolt from the blue, hurl nearly the whole of Europe within a week's time from a state of profound peace into one of continental war, unannounced, unexpected, unexplained, unprecedented in suddenness and enormity, was an unimaginable possibility. And yet the ringing of the church bells was suddenly drowned by the roar of cannon, the voice of the dove of peace by the blare of the trump of war, and throughout the world ran a shudder of terror at these unwonted and ominous sounds.

But in looking back through history, tracing the course of events during the past century, following the footsteps of men in war and peace from that day of upheaval when medieval feudalism went down in disarray before the arms of the people in the French Revolution, some explanation of the Great European war of 1914 may be reached. Every event in history has its roots somewhere in earlier history, and we need but dig deep enough to find them.

Such is the purpose of the present work. It proposes to lay down in a series of apposite chapters the story of the past century, beginning, in fact, rather more than a century ago with the meteoric career of Napoleon and seeking to show to what it led, and what effects it had upon the political evolution of mankind. The French Revolution stood midway between two spheres of history, the sphere of medieval barbarism and that of modern enlightenment. It exploded like a bomb in the midst of the self-satisfied aristocracy of the earlier social system and rent it into the fragments which no hand could put together again. In this sense the career of Napoleon seems providential. The era of popular government had replaced that of autocratic and aristocratic government in France, and the armies of Napoleon spread these radical ideas throughout Europe until the oppressed people of every nation began to look upward with hope and see in the distance before them a haven of justice in the coming realm of human rights.

It required considerable time for these new conceptions to become thoroughly disseminated. A down-trodden people enchained by the theory of the "divine right of kings" to autocratic rule, had to break the fetters one by one and gradually emerge from a state of practical serfdom to one of enlightened emancipation. There were many setbacks, and progress was distressingly slow but nevertheless sure.

The story of this upward progress is the history of the nineteenth century, regarded from the special point of view of political progress and the development of human rights. This is definitely shown in the present work, which is a history of the past century and of the twentieth century so far as it has gone. Gradually the autocrat has declined in power and authority, and the principle of popular rights has risen into view. This war will not have been fought in vain if, as predicted, it will result in the complete downfall of autocracy as a political principle, and the rise of the rule of the people, so that the civilized nations of the earth may never again be driven into a frightful war of extermination against peaceful neighbors at the nod of a hereditary sovereign. Logan Marshall

CONTENTS

Chapter I All Europe Plunged into War Dramatic Suddenness of the Outbreak - Trade and Commerce Paralyzed - Widespread Influences - Terrible Effects of War - The Tide of Destruction - Half Century to Pay Debts

Chapter II Underlying Causes of the Great European War Assassination of the Austrian Crown Prince - Austria's Motive in Making War - Servia Accepts Austria's Demand - The Ironies of History - What Austria Has to Gain - How the War Became Continental - An Editorial Opinion - Is the Kaiser Responsible? - Germany's Stake in the War - Why Russia Entered the Field - France's Hatred of Germany - Great Britain and Italy - The Triple Alliance and Triple Entente

Chapter III Strength and Resources of the Warring Powers Old and New Methods in War - Costs of Modern Warfare - Nature of National Resources - British and American Military Systems - Naval Strength - Resources of Austria-Hungary - Resources of Germany - Resources of Russia - Resources of France - Resources of Great Britain - Servia and Belgium

Chapter IV Great Britain and the War The Growth of German Importance - German Militarism - Great Britain's Peace Efforts - Germany's Naval Program - German Ambitions - Preparation for War - Effect on the Empire

Chapter V The World's Greatest War Wars as Mileposts - A Continent in Arms - How Canada Prepared for War - the British Sentiment - Lord Kitchener's Career - A Forceful Character

Chapter VI The Earthquake of Napoleonism Its Effect on National Conditions Finally Led to the War of 1914 Conditions in France and Germany - The Campaign in Italy - The Victory at Marengo - Moreau at Hohenlinden - The Consul Made Emperor - The Code Napoleon - Campaign of 1805 - Battle of Austerlitz - The Conquest of Prussia - The Invasion of Poland - Eylau and Friedland - Campaign of 1809 - Victory at Wagram - The Campaign in Spain - The Invasion of Russia - A Fatal Retreat - Dresden and Leipzig - The Hundred Days - The Congress of Vienna - The Holy Alliance

Chapter VII Pan-Slavism Versus Pan-Germanism Russia's Part in the Servian Issue - Strength of the Russian Army - The Distribution of the Slavs - Origin of Pan-Slavism - The Czar's Proclamation - The Teutons of Europe - Intermingling of Races - The Nations at War

Chapter VIII The Ambition of Louis Napoleon The Coup-d'etat of 1851 - From President to Emperor - The Empire is Peace - War With Austria - The Austrians Advance - The Battle of Magenta - Possession of Lombardy - French Victory at Solferino - Treaty of Peace - Invasion of Mexico - End of Napoleon's Career

Chapter IX Garibaldi and Italian Unity Power of Austria Broken The Carbonari - Massini and Garibaldi - Cavour, the Statesman - The Invasion of Sicily - Occupation of Naples - Victor Emmanuel Takes Command - Watchword of the Patriots - Garibaldi Marches Against Rome - Battle of Ironclads - Final Act of Italian Unity

Chapter X The Expansion of Germany Beginnings of Modern World Power William I of Prussia - Bismarck's Early Career - The Schleswig-Holstein Question - Conquest of the Duchies - Bismarck's Wider Views - War Forced on Austria - The War in Italy - Austria's Signal Defeat at Sadowa - The Treaty of Prague - Germany after 1866

Chapter XI The Franco-Prussian War Birth of the German Empire and the French Republic Causes of Hostile Relations - Discontent in France - War with Prussia Declared - Self deception of the French - First Meeting of the Armies - The Stronghold of Metz - Mars-la-Tour and Gravelotte - Napoleon III at Sedan - The Emperor a Captive; France a Republic - Bismarck Refuses Intervention - Fall of the Fortresses - Paris is Besieged - Defiant Spirit of the French - The Struggle Continued - Operations Before Paris - Fighting in the South - The War at an End

Chapter XII Bismarck and the German Empire Building the Bulwarks of the Twentieth Century Nation Bismarck as a Statesman - Uniting the German States - William I Crowned at Versailles - A Significant Decade - The Problem of Church Power - Progress of Socialism - William II and the Resignation of Bismarck - Old Age Insurance - Political and Industrial Conditions in Germany

Chapter XIII Gladstone as an Apostle of Reform Great Britain Becomes a World Power Gladstone and Disraeli - Gladstone's Famous Budget - A Suffrage Reform Bill - Disraeli's Reform Measure - Irish Church Disestablishment - An Irish Land Bill - Desperate State of Ireland - The Coercion Bill - War in Africa - Home Rule for Ireland

Chapter XIV The French Republic Struggles of a New Nation The Republic Organized - The Commune of Paris - Instability of the Government - Thiers Proclaimed President - Punishment of the Unsuccessful Generals - MacMahon a Royalist President - Bazaine's Sentence and Escape - Grevy, Gambetta and Boulanger - The Panama Canal Scandal - Despotism of the Army Leaders - The Dreyfus Case - Church and State - The Moroccan Controversy

Chapter XV Russia in the Field of War The Outcome of Slavic Ambition Siege of Sebastopol - Russia in Asia - The Russo-Japanese War -Port Arthur Taken - The Russian Fleet Defeated

Chapter XVI Great Britain and Her Colonies How England Became Mistress of the Seas Great Britain as a Colonizing Power - Colonies in the Pacific Region - Colonization in Africa - British Colonies in Africa - The Mahdi Rebellion in Egypt - Gordon at Khartoum - Suppression of the Mahdi Revolt - Colonization in Asia - The British in India - Colonies in America - Development of Canada - Progress in Canada

Chapter XVII The Open Door in China and Japan Development of World Power in the East Warlike Invasions of China - Commodore Perry and His Treaty - Japan's Rapid Progress - Origin of the China-Japan War - The Position of Korea - Li Hung Chang and the Empress - How Japan Began War - The Chinese and Japanese Fleets - The Battle of the Yalu - Capture of Wei Hai Wei - Europe Invades China - The Boxer Outbreak - Russian Designs on Manchuria - Japan Begins War on Russia - The Armies Meet - China Becomes a Republic

Chapter XVIII Turkey and the Balkan States Checking the Dominion of the Turk in Europe The Story of Servia - Turkey in Europe - The Bulgarian Horrors - The Defense of Plevna - The Congress of Berlin - Hostile Sentiments in the Balkans - Incitement to War - Fighting Begins - The Advance on Adrianople - Servian and Greek victories - The Bulgarian Successes - Steps toward Peace - The War Resumed - Siege of Scutari - Treaty of Peace - War Between the Allies - The Final Settlement

Chapter XIX Methods in Modern Warfare Ancient and Modern Weapons - New Types of Weapons - The Iron-clad Warship - The Balloon in War - Tennyson's Foresight - Gunning for Airships - The Submarine - Under-water Warfare - The New Type of Battleship - Mobilization - The Waste of War

Chapter XX Canada's Part in the World War New Relations Toward the Empire - Military Preparations - The Great Camp at Valcartier - The Canadian Expeditionary Force - Political Effect of Canada's Action on Future of the Dominion

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