Gallipoli by John Masefield 1916
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Gallipoli by John Masefield 1916
The Dardanelles Campaign April—The Landing May—The First Offensive June—Digging
In August—The Final Assault December—The Withdrawal
Illustrated with maps and photos
Illustrations reduced in size from those in the ebook
while ago, during a short visit to America, I was often questioned about the
Dardanelles Campaign. People asked me why that attempt had been made, why it had
been made in that particular manner, why other courses had not been taken, why
this had been done and that either neglected or forgotten, and whether a little
more persistence, here or there, would not have given us the victory.
These questions were often
followed by criticism of various kinds, some of it plainly suggested by our
enemies, some of it shrewd, and some the honest opinion of men and women
happily ignorant of modern war. I answered questions and criticism as best I
could, but in the next town they were repeated to me, and in the town beyond
reiterated, until I felt the need of a leaflet printed for distribution,
giving my views of the matter.
Later, when there was leisure,
I began to consider the Dardanelles Campaign, not as a tragedy, nor as a
mistake, but as a great human effort, which came, more than once, very near to
triumph, achieved the impossible many times, and failed, in the end, as many
great deeds of arms have failed, from something which had nothing to do with
arms nor with the men who bore them. That the effort failed is not against it;
much that is most splendid in military history failed, many great things and
noble men have failed. To myself, this failure is the second grand event of
the war; the first was Belgium's answer to the German ultimatum."
John Edward Masefield, OM, (1 June 1878 – 12 May
1967), was an English poet and writer, and Poet Laureate from 1930 until his
death in 1967. He is remembered as the author of the classic children's novels
The Midnight Folk and The Box of Delights, two novels "Captain Margaret" and
"Multitude and Solitude" and a great deal of memorable poetry, including "The
Everlasting Mercy", and "Sea-Fever", from his anthology Saltwater
Masefield was born in Ledbury, in Herefordshire, a rural area in England. When
he was six, his mother died shortly after giving birth to his sister, Norah.
Fourteen months later, both of his then living Grandparents died, and in 1890,
his father suffered a mental breakdown and died a year later.
After an education at the King's School in Warwick (now known as Warwick
School), where he was a boarder between 1888 and 1891, his Aunt insisted he be
sent on the HMS Conway, for training for a life at sea. He spent several years
aboard this ship and found that he could spend much of his time reading and
writing. It was aboard the Conway that Masefield’s love for story-telling grew.
While on the ship, he listened to the stories told about sea lore. He continued
to read, and felt that he was to become a writer and story teller himself.
In 1894, Masefield boarded the Gilcruix, destined for Chile, this first voyage
bringing him the experience of sea sickness and a taste of fierce weather. He
recorded his experiences while sailing through the extreme weather: it was
obvious from his journal entries that he delighted in viewing flying fish,
porpoises, and birds, and was awed by the beauty of nature, including a rare
sighting of a nocturnal rainbow on his voyage. Upon reaching Chile, Masefield
suffered from sunstroke and was hospitalized. He eventually returned home to
England as a passenger aboard a steam ship.
In 1895, Masefield returned to sea on a windjammer destined for New York City.
However, the urge to become a writer and the hopelessness of life as a sailor
overtook him, and in New York, he deserted ship. He lived as a vagrant for
several months, before returning to New York City, where he was able to find
work as an assistant to a bar keeper.
For the next two years, Masefield was employed in a carpet factory, where long
hours were expected and conditions were far from ideal. He purchased up to 20
books a week, and devoured both modern and classical literature. His interests
at this time were diverse and his reading included works by Trilby, Dumas,
Thomas Browne, Hazlitt, Dickens, Kipling, and R. L. Stevenson. Chaucer also
became very important to him during this time, as well as poetry by Keats and
When Masefield was 23, he met his future wife, Constance Crommelin, who was 35.
Educated in classics and English Literature, and a mathematics teacher,
Constance was a perfect match for Masefield despite the difference in age. The
couple had two children, a son and a daughter.
By 24, Masefield’s poems were being published in periodicals and his first
collected works, "Salt-Water Ballads" was published. "Sea Fever" appeared in
this book. Masefield then wrote two novels, "Captain Margaret" (1908) and
"Multitude and Solitude" (1909). In 1911, after a long drought of poem writing,
he composed "The Everlasting Mercy".
"The Everlasting Mercy" was the first of his narrative poems, and within the
next year, Masefield produced 2 more narrative poems, "The Widow in the Bye
Street" and "Dauber". As a result of the writing of these three poems, Masefield
became widely known to the public and was praised by critics, and in 1912, the
annual Edmund de Polignac prize was bestowed upon Masefield.
When World War I began, though old enough to be exempted from military service,
Masefield went to the Western Front as a medical orderly, later publishing his
own account of his experiences.
After returning home, Masefield was invited to the United States on a 3 month
lecture tour. Although Masefield's primary purpose was to lecture on English
Literature, a secondary purpose was to collect information on the mood and views
of Americans regarding the war in Europe. When he returned back to England, he
submitted a report to the British Foreign Office, and suggested that he be
allowed to write a book about the failure of the allied efforts in the
Dardanelles, which possibly could be used in the US in order to counter what he
thought was German propaganda there. As a result, Masefield wrote ‘Gallipoli’.
This work was a success, encouraging the British people, and lifting them
somewhat from the disappointment they had felt as a result of the Allied losses
in the Dardanelles.
Due to the success of his wartime writings, Masefield met with the head of
British Military Intelligence in France and was asked to write an account of the
Battle of the Somme. Although Masefield had grand ideas for his book, he was
denied access to the official records, and therefore, what was to be his preface
to the book was published as "The Old Front Line", a description of the
geography of the Somme area.
In 1918, Masefield returned to America on his second lecture tour. Masefield
much of his time speaking and lecturing to American soldiers waiting to be sent
to Europe. These speaking engagements were very successful, and on one occasion,
a battalion of all Black soldiers danced and sang for him after his talk. During
this tour, he matured as a public speaker and realized his ability to touch the
emotions of his audience with his style of speaking, learning to speak publicly
with his own heart, rather than from dry scripted speeches. Towards the end of
his trip, both Yale and Harvard Universities conferred honorary Doctorates of
Letters on him.
Masefield entered the 1920's as an accomplished and respected writer. His family
was able to settle in a somewhat rural setting, not far from Oxford, and
Masefield took up beekeeping, goat-herding and poultry-keeping.
Masefield continued to meet with success, the 1923 edition of "Collected Poems"
selling approximately 80,000 copies, quite a lot for a book of poetry. Another
threesome of narrative poems was produced by Masefield early in this decade. The
first was "Reynard The Fox", a poem that has been critically compared with works
of Chaucer. This was followed by "Right Royal" and "King Cole", poems of beauty
and movement, with the relationship of humanity and nature emphasized. While
Reynard is the best known of these, all met with acclaim.
In 1921, Masefield received an Honorary Doctorate of Literature from Oxford
University, and in 1923, organized the Oxford Recitations, an annual contest
whose purpose was "to discover good speakers of verse and to encourage ‘the
beautiful speaking of poetry.’" The Recitations were seen as a success given the
impressive numbers of contest applicants, the promotion of natural speech in
poetical recitations, and the number of people learning how to listen to poetry.
Masefield began to question however, whether the Recitations should continue as
a contest, believing that the event should become more of a festival. In 1929,
Masefield broke with the contest concept, and the Recitations came to an end.
Masefield also wrote a very large number of dramatical pieces during this time.
Most of his dramas were based on themes of Christianity, and in 1928, his "The
Coming of Christ" was the first play to be performed in an English Cathedral
since the middle ages.
In 1930, due to the death of Robert Bridges, a new Poet Laureate was needed.
Many felt that either Rudyard Kipling or Yeats were the likely choices. However,
upon the recommendation of the British Prime Minister, King George V appointed
Masefield, who remained in office until his death in 1967. The only person to
remain in the office for a longer period was Tennyson.
Although the requirements of Poet Laureate had changed, and those in the office
were no longer required to write verse for special occasions, Masefield took his
appointment seriously and produced a large quantity of verse. Poems composed in
his official capacity were sent to The Times. Masefield’s humility was shown by
his inclusion of a stamped envelope with each submission so that his composition
could be returned if it were found unacceptable for publication.
After his appointment, Masefield received many honors, including the Order of
Merit by King George V. He was the recipient of many more honorary degrees from
Universities throughout the United Kingdom, and in 1937 he was elected President
of the Society of Authors.
Masefield encouraged the continued development of English literature and poetry,
and began the annual awarding of the Royal Medals for Poetry for a first or
second published edition of poetry by a poet under the age of 35. Additionally,
his speaking engagements were calling him further away, often on much longer
tours, yet he still produced a veritable amount of work.
It was not until about the age of 70, that Masefield slowed his pace due to
illness. But even then, he continued to learn new things, and took a greater
interest in classical music. In 1960, Constance died at 93, after a long
illness. Masefield was constantly at Constance’s side, and although her death
was heartrending to him, he had spent a very tiring year watching the woman he
adored die. He continued his duties faithfully as Poet Laureate, and even his
other literary works continued. His last published book, "In Glad Thanksgiving",
was published when he was 88 years old.
On May 12, 1967, John Masefield died, after having suffered through a spread of
gangrene up his leg. According to his wishes, he was cremated and his ashes
placed in the Poets’ Corner at Westminster Abbey. Later, the following verse was
discovered, written by Masefield, addressed to his ‘Heirs, Administrators, and
Let no religious rite be done or read In any place for me when I am dead, But
burn my body into ash, and scatter The ash in secret into running water, Or on
the windy down, and let none see; And then thank God that there’s an end of me.
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